Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Definition of anatomy and physiology. Anatomical terms: symmetric and asymmetric. Medial line, medial, lateral, superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, proximal, distal, superficial, and deep. Organs and systems: organs of the body, Systems of the body: skeletal system, muscular system, circulatory system, respiratory system, digestive system, endocrine system, urinary system, nervous system, reproductive system, and organs of special sense.
Cardiovascular system & Yoga
Definition of cardiovascular system. Heart (position of the heart, structure of the heart, chambers of the heart, valves of the heart, blood vessels attached to heart, blood supply to heart, and nerve supply to heart. Arterial and venous system. Blood circulation (systemic, pulmonary, coronary & portal circulation). Functions of the Heart (cardiac cycle, heart sounds, pulse, electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac output, blood pressure (BP).Cardiovascular disorders (cardiac failure, ischemic heart disorder, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrhythmia. Disorders of blood vessels (Arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, aneurysm, embolus, thrombus, phlebitis, venous thrombosis, thrombophlebitis & varicose vein). Hypertension and heart,Yogic intervention in Hypertension,Asana and circulatory system.
Endocrine System & Yoga
Pituitary Gland, Thyroid, Para-thyroids, Adrenal Glands, pancreas, sex glands(gonads) (Ovaries And Testes), thymus & Pineal gland. Chakras: Muladhaara(Base/Root) Anus, Svadhishthana (Sacral) Testes, ovaries, Manipura(SolarPlexus)Adrenals, Anahatha(Heart Chakra)thymus,Vishuda(Throat)Thyroid,Ajna(Brow), Sahasrara(Crown)PituitaryGland, Brahmarandhra(dwelling house of the human soul).
Nervous System & Yoga
Central Nervous System (brain – cerebrum, cerebellum, mid brain, pons, medulla oblongata, brain stem) and spinal cord). Peripheral nervous system (cranial nerves(sensory, motor and mixed), spinal nerves(cervical plexus, brachial plexus, lumbar plexus, and sacral plexus) reflex action. autonomic nervous system(sympathetic, parasympathetic), functions of autonomic nervous system.
Respiratory System & Yoga
Respiration. Respiratory System (Nasal cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, Bronchiole, Alveoli (air sacs)- Lungs(shape, lobes, pleura). Mechanism of respiration (inspiration & expiration). Regulation of respiration (nervous & chemical). Exchange of gases (between tissue & blood, alveoli & blood).
Respiration and nervous system. Voluntary control over Involuntary breathing mechanism. Neural Control of Respiration: Autonomic functions of the Respiratory System: Hypothalamus, Autonomic Nervous System, Endocrine System, and Respiratory System. Voluntary functions of the Respiratory System: Voluntary Nervous System, Respiratory System, Hypothalamic Control. Respiration: inspiration, exchange of gas, pulmonary (external) respiration, tissue(internal) respiration, rate of respiration. Alveolar and minute ventilation. atmospheric, alveolar, and blood gases. Hypoventilation, hyperventilation.
Breathing and posture. Diaphragm and asana. Pranayama and autonomic nervous system. Physiology of respiration (lung volumes and dead spaces).
Stretching, Contraction and Flexibility
Aerobic and Anaerobic Yoga Practices.
Flexibility: Types of Flexibility (Dynamic Flexibility, Static-Active Flexibility & Static-Passive Flexibility). Factors Limiting Flexibility: Internal Influences, External Influences, How Connective Tissue Affects Flexibility, How Aging Affects Flexibility, Strength and Flexibility, Over-flexibility.
Muscles Contraction, Fast and Slow Muscle Fibers, Connective Tissue, Cooperating Muscle Groups, Types of Muscle Contractions, What Happens When You Stretch, Proprioceptors, The Stretch Reflex, Components of the Stretch Reflex, The Lengthening Reaction, Reciprocal Inhibition.
Stretching – Moving, origins and Insertions. Physiology of Stretching, Spinal Cord Reflexes, Methods of Muscle Stretching. Muscle Spindle Stretch Receptor. Reciprocal Inhibition. Golgi Tendon Organ – Golgi Tendon Organ and Facilitated Stretching.
Types of Stretching: 1. Ballistic Stretching 2. Dynamic Stretching 3 .Active Stretching 4. Passive Stretching 5. Static Stretching 6. Isometric Stretching 7. PNF Stretching.
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